Overweight or obesity are becoming an issue or problem in today’s society. Overweight can lead to personal problems (illnesses) such as high blood pressure, type II diabetes mellitus, disorders of fat metabolism, gout, coronary heart diseases etc. But there are also social problems, e.g. B. Being overweight is a major burden on healthcare. In 2003, the cost of health care due to body weight was approximately 11.3 billion euros. According to PromoPharma estimates, the costs will be approximately 22.4 billion euros in 2020 .
There are various calculation formulas for determining an overweight. The best known is the Body Mass Index (BMI). In addition, excess weight can be calculated using the Broca index, the waist-hip ratio or the waist size index.
The causes of the development of overweight can basically be justified with a wrong energy balance. If the absorbed energy is higher than the requirement, there is an excess of energy, which is then stored in the body as a fat reserve. You can find more information on the energy balance and healthy nutrition here (All about nutrition). To read a sample of the nutrition guide:
Other reasons for being overweight can be genetics, social status, climate, age, lifestyle and dietary behavior. But it can also be caused by metabolic changes in the body or a high-energy and low-fiber diet. The genetics of humans correspond to 99% of those of the Stone Age man, so he is a carnivore and fat store. As a result, if there is an excess of food, the energy is stored in fat. During this time, people were repeatedly exposed to starvation and were forced to survive the lack of food with their own fat stores. In addition, the metabolism was adapted to the lower food intake. Because there is an oversupply of food in our society and the metabolic process is still the same, the body puts itself in an emergency mechanism, for example during a diet. The metabolic process is then adjusted again according to the food supply. If you have reached your desired weight after a diet and then increase the food supply again, you will quickly gain weight again. However, the metabolic process cannot react as quickly as food intake is increased. That is why the body weight after a diet is often above the initial weight before the diet.
With a strong reduction in calories or fasting, the glycogen stores are rapidly broken down and the body water bound to glycogen is released. The first weight loss (approx. 2-3 kg) is therefore attributable to the body water released and not to body fat.
If this principle is adhered to, the body adapts to it and converts amino acids from the muscles into glycogen. As a result, the body stabilizes the blood sugar level. This can have harmful effects on health.
The body first reacts to such a radical change in diet by lowering the metabolic rate. This results in a reduction in the basal metabolic rate with increasing hunger and appetite. This leads to a termination of the calorie reduction. The now increased intake leads to an increase in the lost muscle mass and a primary replenishment of the fat stores.
The following four approaches are available to ensure weight reduction in the long term:
Reduction of energy supply
The basic prerequisite for weight reduction is the reduction in energy intake, i.e. a negative energy balance. If you keep in mind that 1 kg of fat corresponds to 7,000 kcal, you can roughly estimate how long it can take to lose 1 kg of fat.
The greater the difference between energy intake and demand, the greater the loss of body mass. It should be noted that in addition to adipose tissue, muscle mass is also lost. The greater the energy deficit, the greater the proportion of muscle mass loss. It is therefore important that the energy difference is not greater than 1,000 kcal, better still 500 kcal. This corresponds to a weekly breakdown of pure fat tissue of 500 g, if a loss of muscle mass is counteracted by parallel strength training and sufficient protein intake (Bischoff & Betz, 2010, p. 422). Basically, it can be said that at the beginning of a reduction in body weight as well as in heavily obese people, weight loss is greatest. If less than 1,500 kcal total calories are added daily, it is hardly possible to adequately absorb all important nutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, even through a skillful food selection. In such cases, supplementation should be considered (www.rund-ums-mountainbike.de/supplements).
Optimal nutrient relation
If you want to lose weight, it can make sense to reduce the amount of fats added. If you compare that fat has an average calorific value of 9.3 kcal and carbohydrates only 4.1 kcal, you can see that fat absorbs more than twice as many calories. With a carbohydrate-rich diet, the volume of food can be increased and the feeling of satiety improved. According to the DGE, the distribution of nutrients between 10-15% proteins, 25-30% fats and approx. 55% carbohydrates must be observed even if you want to lose weight. It is important to ensure that the hidden fats in sausage, meat, cheese or baked or seared in fat are omitted. Chips and sweets in general should also be avoided. This avoidance leads to a reduced total calorie intake that promotes weight loss. However, fat should not be completely avoided, otherwise the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins will be difficult and fat metabolism disorders can occur. In order to prevent that a lot or more muscle mass is lost during weight loss, the above-mentioned. Distribution adjusted in favor of the proteins. It is possible to increase the percentage of proteins to 20-25%. The proportion of carbohydrates is reduced accordingly (45-50%). The advantage of this variant is that proteins are more filling than carbohydrates (DhfPG / BSA).
Sensible food selection
If you know the distribution of nutrients, you have to know which food groups the nutrients should be divided into. These reference values are updated regularly by the D-A-CH group.
Foods from the carbohydrate group should consist of up to 30%. Vegetables should have a share of approx. 26% and fruit approx. 17%. Added to this are dairy products with a share of approx. 18% and animal proteins of 7%. The remaining 2% come from the group of fats and oils (Stehle, Oberritter, Büning-Fesel & Heseker, 2005).
A sufficient drop in the blood sugar level can be avoided by the intake of sufficient fiber and thus a weight reduction can be favored. In addition, high-fiber foods prevent the release of insulin, which is an inhibitor of fat oxidation.
It is unfortunately not possible to answer the right frequency or frequency for meals. This is a question that can be answered individually. Everyone has to develop their own strategy, whether it is better to have fewer meals but large meals or whether it is better to have several meals but smaller ones. Both strategies have their advantages and disadvantages.
People who are overweight find it difficult to eat many meals with small portions because they often do not feel full or start eating too late. As a result, the small portions often turn into normal or large portions and therefore a calorie deficit is not achieved. For these people it is usually better to eat a few meals, for example three a day, but larger amounts. It follows that blood sugar levels can drop between meals, which favors weight loss.
Lean people and athletes often have no problems with many smaller meals because you feel full in time. Therefore, these people are usually better served by eating multiple meals a day. The blood sugar level is then always at a constant level. B. Food cravings avoided.
But no matter what strategy and what food selection you choose, exercise and sport play an important role in reducing body weight. Not only does athletic activity reduce risk factors and diseases that can be caused by being overweight, but it can also have a positive impact on the energy balance. In addition, sport can help you maintain your desired weight thanks to the higher energy requirements. A combination of strength and endurance training is recommended to avoid that you lose too much or no muscle mass in times of negative energy balance. Here again the suggestion is made that the amount of proteins can be increased to counteract the loss of muscle mass.