Having an adequate electrical installation is very important in the care and maintenance of our house. Knowing the elements that make up the entire installation (outside and inside the house) becomes necessary to know what we have to check periodically. What to keep in mind for a good electrical installation? Of course, no matter what you keep in mind, you need to use an electrical CAD software and to get more info about that, you may need to visit http://www.ige-xao.com/en/software-editor-electrical-plm-cad-and-simulation/electrical-cad-software.
The electrical installation is made up of the network of cables that pass through walls and ceilings, the switches, the sockets, fuses, bells, lamp holders, smoke detectors and everything that uses the electricity that reaches us at home.
It must be adequate for the energy demand of our home or business
The design of the electrical installation must be considered to satisfy the need of each house, that is, it is necessary to know how many devices will be connected in each outlet, the voltage, the use and what type of demand each appliance requires. There must also be a ground connection inside the installation to protect you from a discharge. This information can be verified in the construction plans if it is a new house or apartment, you can also call an electrician to inspect your installation.
It must consist of several circuits that separately feed different areas of construction (bedrooms, kitchen, living room, etc.)
There are some devices that require more voltage and if several are connected to the same circuit you can generate an overload, if you need more power outlets it is better to install a new one and avoid the use of extensions. For example, appliances such as the microwave are recommended to have their own outlet.
The quality of the materials throughout the installation and its proper placement
The cables must be well plasticized, it must be checked that the humidity does not waste the installation, the fuse box and the pads must be in good condition, when replacing a fuse it must be taken into account that it is always of the same capacity as the is using.
The “fall” of electricity
This is the name given to the phenomenon that occurs in an electrical conductor when receiving energy at a distance from a power source. The farther away the source and the thinner the conductor, the less voltage will come. In a proper installation these variations should not be too disparate from the door of the house to the last room. Generally it can be verified when using a multimeter in the closest contact and the one furthest from the safety switch.
The construction projects carried out in our country in recent years have brought with them a wide development of the area of electrical installations in the residential, commercial and industrial sector, generating needs, both technical and administrative, increasingly demanding. That is why it is necessary to analyze the stages of a project of electrical installations.
An electrical installation is a particular project of a construction that requires special attention, considering that its processes involve a series of specific tasks and responsibilities. In each of them, the “good practices” of engineering, the selection of certified personnel and the use of quality materials – in strict compliance with current regulations and standards – are an indispensable requirement.
Below are suggested five stages that will facilitate the development of your electrical projects.
With the delivery of the building license by the municipality, the electrical project can be started.
In this stage decisions are made about the course of action so that the project achieves its objectives. It should be noted that the participation of an electrical engineer or electrician qualified in the design of an electrical installation is of vital importance, which must consider what is established in the National Electricity Utilization Code (CNE-U: 2006).
Determination of the electrical load of the installation
Step 1: Calculate the electrical load (number of equipment) estimated to be required by the project as well as its future projection, its characteristics and operation data, what spaces are available and how they will be distributed, among others.
Step 2: Select the right electrical conductor for the installation: halogen free and flame retardant; of thickness (caliber) suitable to transport the energy demanded by the load (determined in the previous step), that minimizes the environmental impact and that contributes with the quality of energy of the system. It is important to remember that the minimum caliber established by the CNE-U: 2006 is 2.5 mm². Additionally, the revision of the Manual of Economic and Environmental Sizing is suggested as part of the driver’s selection.
Step 3: Select electrical protections:
– Thermomagnetic (to protect the selected cables depending on the chosen gauge)
– Differentials (to protect people from electrocutions)
– Earthing system for 100% of the installation (path that will allow dispersing any leakage current on the ground or failure that could endanger the installation, equipment and living beings).
Step 4: Consider additionally the availability and characteristics of the energy supply, the pre-sizing and location of the elements necessary for the installation, the particular requirements of the project, the preference of materials and the scope of the work proposal in general terms .
Development of the proposal
In the specifications of the work proposal should be placed the generalities of the project, the contractual conditions, the detailed characteristics of the materials to be used, the official rules to be followed, the budget of the work, the work schedule (calendar) and the flow of funds or form of payment. Likewise, it is part of this process to define the scope of the work, the costs, the estimated time of execution, the parameters of quality, the personnel, the associated risks and the acquisition of the materials.
All the information gathered must be included in a map that contains the corresponding universal symbols, the location in plants of each of the required energy services, the medium and low voltage supply routes, the load charts, the equipment sizing and spaces and some constructive details.
If good planning was done, execution will be a simple process. It involves coordinating people and resources, as well as integrating and carrying out project activities in accordance with the planning approved by the client and the person responsible for the work. It will be necessary to have qualified and certified technical personnel who can expertly develop the engineer’s instructions shown in the plans. In the same way – and as part of the procurement plan – it will be necessary to have certified products that add value to the work carried out, ensure quality and contribute to the safety of the installation and future users of the building.
In order to guarantee the success of a project, it will be necessary to measure, monitor and regulate the progress and performance of the project, as well as to identify the areas in which the plan requires changes in order to ensure the quality of the specified products and services. in the plans and descriptive memories of the project.
In this stage the acceptance of the product, service or result is formalized. Involves the compliance of the work by the client as well as the delivery of updated project documentation.
Finally, once the building has been delivered, based on NTP 370.304: 2012, it is necessary to measure and verify the electrical installations of the housing buildings prior to commissioning and later periodically, for the purpose of checking if the permanently installed electrical material complies with standards (certificates) and has been chosen and installed correctly or does not show signs of deterioration. To get more info about creating electrical installations properly, you need to click on http://www.ige-xao.com/en/software-editor-electrical-plm-cad-and-simulation/electrical-design-software.